Defining Artificial Intelligence

In this post I'll try to figure out (primarily for myself) what is Artificial Intelligence.

Evidently, the "artificial" part requires no explanation, and the real problem is only with the "intelligence" part.

An extremely over-simplified, and actually incorrect definition would be "Intelligence is the ability to think logically". Evidently, logic cannot be the sole basis of intelligence, at least because intelligence requires an ability to comprehend the environment, not only deduct. Moreover, logic itself is not an ultimate intelligence resource - it cannot explain the environment. Even planning an experiment - a generic method of studying the environment - requires not only logic, but also some kind of stimulus to learn the environment (possibly derived from the adaptation requirement which, in turn, is one of the mechanisms of self-preservation and self-defense).

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